Monday, February 24, 2020
Experimental economics summary paper - Essay Example Main Findings The article specifically showed that reciprocity is achieved when trust has been developed through personal and social interaction. This was identified in the experiment using the concept of investment game. The belief that self-interest can substantially explain how an individual may behave from an economic standpoint was challenged and proved to be insufficient to give explanation in understanding human behavior in the economic context (Berg, Dickhaut, & McCabe 137). The concept of trust and reciprocity was found to be dominating in the investment game which implies that individuals try to develop relationship and are willing to give up self-interested motives. The whole point of this is that an individual wants to continue harmonious relationship and aim for stability in order to be treated with fairness and equality in the long run. Another important justification and which could also stand as another important result is the inclusion of social norm as the basis of decision of an individual to go for trust and reciprocity (Berg, Dickhaut, & McCabe 132).
Monday, February 17, 2020
Commercialization plan for Medical devices - Essay Example The study will highlight the entire commercialization plan developed for the Health Kart Diabetic Monitoring device which includes the patenting, drafting and the quality control process. Table of Contents Technology 6 Product Description: HealthKart Diabetz 6 Key Success Factors 6 Patents 7 Process of Acquiring Patents for Diabetic Monitoring Device 9 The Firm: Health Kart Diabetes 10 The Business Opportunity 11 Value Proposition 11 External Players 12 Market 13 Market Dynamics 13 External Forces 13 Environmental Impact 13 Marketing Strategies 14 Strategic Positioning of HealthKare Diabetes 17 Quality Control Monitoring Process 21 Action Plan 23 Implementation of Milestones 24 Marketing Tasks 24 Timings 24 Mass Targeting Strategy for HealthKare Diabetes 24 Commercial Risk Assessment 25 Financials 26 Conclusion 27 References 28 Background: Commercialization of Diabetic Monitoring Devices The commercialization activity is regarded as an important business activity, which leads to the development of a new market plan for the introduction of a new product into the market (Ahmed & Rafiq, 2002). This activity involves the formulation of new marketing strategies and also the development of effective marketing devices, which would help in checking the feasibility of the marketing plan. Commercialization would also help in monitoring whether the marketing activities adhere with the executed plan (CIM, n.d.). However, commercialization would also include various marketing strategies required for the launch of new product and production process, which would also require financial and non-financial assistance from the management perspective. The study will deal with commercialization of diabetic monitoring devices, which forms an integral part among the medical equipment. Diabetic monitoring devices not only help in checking the glucose levels of an individual, but also prevent from increasing the glucose levels in medical patients. The main objective of the monitoring de vices would be to check the glucose content and the concentration of glucose levels in an individual. The study will deal with the commercialization plan of diabetic monitoring device, which has been the aid for several medial patients. The author of the study has formulated a marketing plan, which consists of varied marketing strategies for introducing new product into the market and also for the development of a commercialization process for this particular product. Technology Product Description: HealthKart Diabetz The product would be named HealthKart Diabetz and will be initially marketed in the US and UK to cater to the needs of the mass population suffering from diabetes and other glucose content related diseases. The main objective of the marketer would be to develop a product whose functionality would be simple and would produce accurate results. The medical device would help in providing quantitative test and would reflect the glucose content in the blood levels of the ind ividual. The product will help in monitoring the glucose level of an individual and the results can be shown to the doctor for daily adjustment in the treatment, checking high and low level sugar content, understand whether the patient requires change in the existing diet and exercise plan. The product will be environment
Saturday, February 8, 2020
Pulmonary Embolism - Essay Example The clots can break free, travel to the lung, and block an artery. The condition can uncommonly be caused from fat escaping from fractured bone marrow or from amniotic fluid during childbirth. With a large clot, or many number of clots, pulmonary embolism can cause death. The process by which a pulmonary embolism forms, begins in the blood stream. Blood flows from the right side of the heart to the lungs where it picks up oxygen. The heart pumps this oxygen-rich blood through arteries delivering it to various parts of the body after which it enters another network of veins. The veins carry the now oxygen-poor blood back to the heart, which pumps the blood to the lungs to pick up oxygen again. A blood clot forming in a vein, commonly a deep vein in the leg, can travel with the blood flow back to the lungs and become lodge there.This leads to pulmonary embolism. When the lung arteries become blocked by a blood clot, high blood pressure in the lungs may occur. This results in the heart having to pump harder than usual. A continually overworked heart may enlarge and may eventually fail to function. A large pulmonary embolism can result in failure of both the lungs and heart. However, the sooner a physician can diagnose and treat the condition, increases the chances of surviving a pulmonary embolism. The symptoms of pulmonary embolism differ widel... The symptoms of pulmonary embolism differ widely and often resemble those of other conditions; the classic signs include sudden shortness of breath, chest pain and a cough that produces blood-streaked sputum. Breathing may be very rapid and breathing deeply may cause severe chest pains. Other symptoms include increased pulse rate, dizziness, and fainting. Pulmonary infarction may result if there is a lack of blood flow to the lungs causing some lung tissue to die. In addition the patient may also cough up blood-stained phlegm, have sharp chest pains, and fever. The skin may turn a bluish color from a lack of oxygen when the larger vessels of the lungs are blocked. Chronic pulmonary embolism, where small blood clots deposit themselves in the lungs repeatedly over time, will cause shortness of breath, swelling of the leg and all round weakness (MayoClinic 2006). Risk factors for a pulmonary embolus include: Prolonged bed rest or inactivity (including long trips in planes, cars, or trains), Oral contraceptive use, Surgery (especially pelvic surgery), Childbirth, Massive trauma, Burns, Cancer, Stroke, Heart attack, Heart surgery, Fractures of the hips or femur A blood clot is the first factor towards pulmonary embolism and one that forms in a vein is called a thrombus. A blood clot is a plug of platelets enmeshed in a group of red blood cells and fibrin. Blood clots usually develop to help stop bleeding an injury, but sometimes form without reason. A clot that develops in one part of the body and travels in the bloodstream to another part of the body is called an embolus. Sometimes other substances, such as pieces of a tumor, globules of fat from fractured bones or air bubbles, may enter the bloodstream and become an embolus that blocks arteries. A vein in the leg or
Monday, February 3, 2020
Introduction to the business of Investment Banking - Assignment Example An ardent need was felt for having a regulator which would ensure that the trading takes place keeping the interest of the investor in the mind. Hence in 1984, a ministerial committee was formed with the sole motive of regulating the capital market of Saudi Arabia (Tadawul, 2014, p. 1). The Saudi Arabian Stock Exchange is mainly run by the Board of Saudi Arabia which includes 9 members. The Capital Market Authority of the country takes care of the recommendation through which the members of the Board are nominated. The board comprises of the Chairman as well as the Vice Chairman apart from 7 other members. The operations of Tadawul are conducted in the electronic mode. Most of the orders of buy and sell as well as the ordering system or the trading procedure take place with the help of the electronic modes. This was started since 1990 and ensures that there is very little scope for fraudulent activities or illegal trading practices in Saudi Arabian Stock Exchange. The trading session of the exchange takes place between 11 am in the morning and 3.30 pm in the afternoon. The Tadawul All Share Index or the TASI is the index which indicates the performance of the stocks which are listed in the Tadawul Stock Exchange. The stocks of more than 168 companies are traded in the stock exchange. There are a number of sectors under which he stocks are traded. These sectors include the financial, consumer goods, Healthcare, telecoms, oil and gas as well as the industrial goods and materials. The products that are mainly traded in the Tadawul Stock Exchange include the Equities, Sukuk and Bonds, Mutual Funds as well as Exchange Traded Funds. The investment banks have a very active role in the entire process of the listing of the shares as well as in the raising of the funds from individual investors as well as the corporate clients when a company goes public. The investment bank ensures that the interests of
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Amy Chua Hanna Rosen Essay Amy Chua and Hannah Rosin: a comparison and contrast of parenting styles In recent years, Yale professor Amy Chua has drawn a great deal of attention due to her focus on a parenting style that is foreign Ã¢â¬â both figuratively and literally Ã¢â¬â to most Western parents. This style centers on a Chinese model that Chua espouses, and that has become famous, or infamous, for the stern and rigorous practices that Chua enforced with her own two daughters. Chua has received a large amount of criticism; one of her critics is Hannah Rosin, a prominent writer and editor. In response to Chua, Rosin outlines an alternative method of parenting. It can be argued that while both Chua and Rosin are involved and devoted mothers, they have distinctly contrasting views on how to raise children. There are three areas in which this contrast can be most clearly seen: attitudes to success, attitudes to self-esteem, and attitudes to happiness. Amy ChuaÃ¢â¬â¢s model of parenting has success at its core. Chua sums up the Chinese approach to activities in this way: Ã¢â¬Å"What Chinese parents understand is that nothing is fun until youÃ¢â¬â¢re good at itÃ¢â¬ (Chua, 2011). With this as a mantra, Chua promotes an extremely rigorous approach to such activities as learning a musical instrument; she believes that two or three hours of practicing an instrument daily is appropriate for young children. Furthermore, Chua believes that parents should not give their children any choice over which musical instruments to learn; the violin and piano are the only acceptable choices, regardless of the childÃ¢â¬â¢s natural talent or predilection. This approach is also evident in academics. Chua says, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦the vast majority of Chinese mothersÃ¢â¬ ¦believe their children can be Ã¢â¬Ëthe bestÃ¢â¬â¢ students, that Ã¢â¬Ëacademic achievement reflects successful parentingÃ¢â¬â¢ and that if children did not excel at school there was Ã¢â¬Ëa problemÃ¢â¬â¢ and parents Ã¢â¬Ëwere not doing their jobÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Chua, 2011). Hannah Rosin takes a distinctly different approach to success, one that is arguably more reflective of Western attitudes in general. Rosin says, Ã¢â¬Å"Ms. Chua has the diagnosis of American childhood exactly backward. What privileged American children need is not more skills and rules and math drills. They need to lighten up and roam free, to express themselves in waysÃ not dictated by their uptight, over-invested parentsÃ¢â¬ (Rosin, 2011). In RosinÃ¢â¬â¢s view, ChuaÃ¢â¬â¢s version of success is ultimately very limiting. Rosin doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t argue that success is a negative thing in and of itself; however, her looser, freer approach suggests that it can be achieved differently. Another area where Rosin and Chua differ from each other is in their approach to self-esteem and the way in which parents should treat their children. Chua openly admits that it is common for Chinese parents to make comments to their children that Western parents find reprehensible, such as Ã¢â¬Å"Hey fatty, lose some weightÃ¢â¬ , or referring to a child as Ã¢â¬Å"garbageÃ¢â¬ (Chua, 2011). However, Chua defends these comments by arguing that in fact, Chinese parents speak in this way because ultimately, they believe that their children are capable of being the Ã¢â¬Å"bestÃ¢â¬ . She contends that Chinese children know that their parents think highly of them, and criticize them only because they have high expectations and know that their children can meet them. Hannah Rosin disagrees. She says, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦there is no reason to believe that calling your child Ã¢â¬ËlazyÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËstupidÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËworthlessÃ¢â¬â¢ is a better way to motivate her to be good than some other more gentle but persistent modeÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (Rosin, 2011). She believes that a parentÃ¢â¬â¢s role is not to act as a harsh critic and task master, but rather to guide them through the inevitable difficulties of life that arise. Unlike Chua, Rosin is not concerned with forcing her children to be Ã¢â¬Å"the bestÃ¢â¬ . Rather, she says that Ã¢â¬Å"It is better to have a happy, moderately successful child than a miserable high-achieverÃ¢â¬ (Rosin, 2011). It is in this area, pertaining to notions of happiness that Chua and Rosin depart most distinctly from each other. It can be argued that the idea of happiness is almost completely absent from Amy ChuaÃ¢â¬â¢s template. Chua says, Ã¢â¬Å"Chinese parents believe that they know that is best for their children and therefore override all of their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s own desires and preferencesÃ¢â¬ (Chua, 2011). In other words, the feelings or preference of the child as an individual are lacking completely from the Chinese framework of parenting. The childÃ¢â¬â¢s happiness, or misery, is completely irrelevant, because theÃ parent is the supreme authority, acting in the childÃ¢â¬â¢s best interest. Chua claims, Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not that Chinese parents donÃ¢â¬â¢t care about their children , just the opposite. They would give up anything for their childrenÃ¢â¬ (Chua, 2011). However, the one thing that Chua and other parents will not give up is complete authoritarian control. Rosin takes an entirely different approach to the value of individual happiness. She observes that happiness does not come through being successful; furthermore, Ã¢â¬Å"happiness is the great human questÃ¢â¬ (Rosin, 2011). Parents cannot possibly always be in a position to know what will make a child happy or not; children must work out their own path to happiness (Rosin, 2011). Rosin believes that an over-emphasis on perfection will not lead to greater happiness and may even create less happiness in the end. In conclusion, it is undeniable that both Amy Chua and Hannah Rosin love their children and believe that their approach to parenting is based on a desire to do what is best for those children. However, the two approaches present a sharp contrast to each other. Amy Chua believes that success, perfection and being Ã¢â¬Å"the bestÃ¢â¬ are of paramount importance, and will ultimately build a childÃ¢â¬â¢s self-esteem (Chua, 2011). Hannah Rosin is critical of the harshness of the Chinese template and argues for a gentler approach, one that takes the natural interests and talent of the child into account (Rosin, 2011). Rosin notes that the idea of enjoyment or happiness is strikingly absent from ChuaÃ¢â¬â¢s parenting style; in turn, Chua observes that many Western parents are disappointed with the choices that their children make in their lives (Rosin, 2011; Chua, 2011). It can be argued that both the Eastern approach and Western approach have a great deal to offer each other; a wise parent knows how to walk a middle ground.
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Description of a participatory action oriented course PROGRAMME DESCRIPTION OF A PARTICIPATORY ACTION-ORIENTED PAOT COURSE Background We will be conducting a PAOT on work improvement in small enterprises (WISE) course over a one week period. The PAOT course is not a formal lecture, is interactive and participant centred. It is recognised that SMEs contribute significantly to the national economy and that they are huge employers. It is also recognised that however, they do not always have a preventive or safety culture. They do not employ OSH practitioners nor do the employees and employers alike receive formal OSH training. Hence the implementation of the WISE programme as one of the PAOT methodologies, whose aim is to improve working conditions/OSH in the workplace and productivity using simple, effective and affordable techniques that provide benefits to owners/employers, workers and the community. Facilitators will do preliminary work, send invitations to identified participants. Other significant persons will be also invited as the programme will detail. Target group and participants Two facilitators will provide guidance and steer the programme. Invitations will be extended to 30 participants drawn from the local informal small to medium scale enterprises. These will consist of largely the employees or owners who do day to day work and including their supervisors, managers or owners who do supervisory or managerial work. Invited important observers will include two members of the community local leadership, one official from The Ministry of Public Service, Labour and Social Welfare and one representative from the financial sponsor of material: ILO, Zimbabwe Decent Work Programme General and specific objectives General objective: Make participants become aware that investment in low cost permanent simple improvements results in more satisfied and productive workers, more satisfied mangers who, together with the workers, will ensure efficient safe workplaces, leading ultimately to a more successful sustainable business. Specific objectives (for the participants) Learn application of the checklist for the purpose of selecting priority workplace improvements in their SMEs in the local setting for, materials storage and handling, workstation, machine safety, control of dangerous substances, lighting, welfare facilities, industrial facilities and work organisation. Identify and focus on commonly encountered working conditions problems in the above mentioned areas. Point out the local and commonly available simple low cost workplace improvements for the identified problems. Link better working conditions to better productivity. Course outline and contents Dates:29 December 2014 to 2 January 2015 (five days) Venue: Local Community Hall Site Visit: A walking distance from the Hall, an SME that is into furniture making Facilitators:Dr B. Ziki and Mr D. Moyo Participants: 30 (split into 5 groups of six individuals) Course content: Will include the history of PAOT, concept of PAOT, its advantages, the WISE methodology, scope for improvement and emphasis on the tapping of local wisdom for low cost sustainable workplace improvements in the SMEs. Day 1 to 5: Will be guided by the above course content. Activities will include: The opening ceremony, introductions, orientation, workplace visit, checklist exercise, group discussion of checklist results, presentation of group results, technical sessions Ã¢â¬â one or two a day, implementation of improvements with an action plan, workshop evaluation and closing. Methodology Facilitators will do preliminary work, visiting SMEs, finding and taking pictures of good examples to be used for discussion. A spacious venue where island sitting (round table) arrangement is possible is chosen. It must also be near the visit site On the first day after the opening ceremony, the course outline is presented and soon after there will be a site visit to a chose workplace. The 30 participants are split into five groups of six each. Each group will complete a checklist. A spokesperson is chosen and after discussions, he or she will point out important observations and low cost sustainable suggestions for improvement. No negative criticism is allowed. A different aspect of the WISE programme is tackled each day. Facilitator gives an outline of the topic for discussion and provides good examples and allows participants to discuss on the topic. Last will be implementation of improvements with an action plan, workshop evaluation and closing of the workshop. Timetable Evaluation and follow-up Evaluation of the PAOT course is necessary to assess usefulness, effectiveness and areas that were good and those that need improvement. Participants are given evaluation forms which they fill in and immediately return. Feedback is given after all forms are looked at. Participants also must demonstrate assimilation of information and that they are ready to undertake self help actions to improve workplace conditions in their local settings. They are reminded to do checklists at their workplaces, identify priority areas that need improvement and draw action plans. Participants are encouraged to share experiences with each other and with their or fellow employees, as well as continue to improve even on improvements already made. They are then issued with certificates of attendance. A tentative calendar for follow-up visits by the facilitators at the participantÃ¢â¬â¢s workplaces is drawn up. It is recommended that this is done two to three months after the course is conducted to assess the participants self help, low cost, and local practical solutions suggested and implemented to improve working conditions. After a walk through and discussions, positive developments are praised and the discussion must stimulate the participant to remain interested in the PAOT methodology and its ideals. A small, inexpensive and clever (SIC) contest held anytime between two to twelve months is organised to show the group with the best SIC solutions to identified workplace condition/s needing priority attention. An achievement workshop can be planned for six months to a year after the PAOT course. Participants present on their achievements and sustainable improvements and the best presentation can be rewarded. References Learning modules A8.1 and 8.2 Participatory Action-Oriented Training. Ton That Khai, Tsuyoshi Kawakami and Kazutaka Kogi. 2011. An ILO publication. Roles of Participatory Action-oriented Programs in Promoting Safety and Health at Work. Safety and Health at Work. Safe Health Work 2012;3:155-65 An introduction to the WISE Program. Conditions of Work and Employment Programme. An ILO initiative.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Missing image The New York Crystal Palace: The End of an Era So bursts a bubble rather noteworthy in the annals of New York. To be accurate, the bubble burst some years ago, and this catastrophe merely annihilates the apparatus that generated it. -George Templeton Strong It is unfortunate that the wonderful lithographs in our collection which depict the burning of the New York Crystal Palace are not in this online exhibition. They include a color lithograph by Currier & Ives which truly captures the excitement and confusion of that fateful night. However, the bird's eye view of the New York Crystal Palace exhibited here does justice to this amazing structure. The lithograph by Frank Leslie shows the extensive use of glass panes for which both the London and New York Crystal Palaces were given their names. It also shows the throngs of people that must have visited the New York Crystal Palace during the Exhibition, even though they were not numerous enough to make the building profitable for investors. The lithograph duplicated on this web site is about 20 x 13 inches. One is able to see the details much more clearly by viewing the original itself. As opposed to those lithographs which showed only a building with no background and no people, this image shows not only the city behind the Palace, but also the city within the Palace. In the background, one can see the various modes of transportation that visitors must have used to get to the Exhibition. The railroad runs across the top of the image, with a train in the upper left. Sailboats and steamboats move along the river, and horse-drawn carriages pull up to the front gates, unloading passengers into the crowd. The buildings behind the Palace fade away, but t... ...nd 2,000 people were in the building, but they were all evacuated in time by a heroic fire department that put saving life ahead of saving merchandise. Having been constructed almost entirely of iron and glass, with only a little wood near its base, and having been called "fireproof" at the time of its construction, the Palace faced the same sort of irony which the "unsinkable" Titanic faced in 1912. The enormous building burnt to the ground in less than half an hour. The building itself, though no longer standing, remains one of America's first and most interesting examples of glass and iron architecture. The exhibits of industrial and artistic objects, whether huge steam-powered machines, intricately decorated home furnishings, or marble statues, attested to the high degree of invention and skill that characterized the artistic expressions of ante-bellum culture.